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VGA Genoa SuperVGA x 16 SDGSV VGA GEM 4. VGA FreeGEM SDGSV EGA FreeGEM SDKHM VGA x 4 SDKLF9. VGA FreeGEM SDKLF VGA IBM Convertible x 2?
CGA GEM 3. CGA - Colours inverted for laptops; by Jaroslaw Binczaowski SDCGA9. CGA FreeGEM SDRCG9. CGA FreeGEM Colours inverted for laptops.
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CGA FreeGEM SDELF CGA SDELF EGA FreeGEM SDEH EGA 2 IBMEH1P2. EGA SDEH BS 16 IBMEHFP2. EGA FreeGEM SDEHF EGA SDEHF VGA GEM 3.
VGA FreeGEM SDPSM VGA 4 SDPS VGA SDPS VGA 8 SDPS VGA 16 SDPSC7. VGA - From deltasoft. From DRDOS 6. BS GEM 5. VGA FreeGEM SDUNI9.
VGA SDUNI BS SDUNI EGA FreeGEM SDHRC EGA FreeGEM Hercules InColor x 16 SDHIC9. EGA FreeGEM Maxlogic MaxVGA x 16 SDMX EGA - The files to look for are MAXEGA.
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VGA FreeGEM SDGEN VGA - Came from a file called DRVR. Paradise VGA x SDPAR9. Genre names are normally self-describing in terms of the type of gameplay, such as action game , role playing game , or shoot 'em up , though some genres have derivations from influential works that have defined that genre, such as roguelikes from Rogue ,  Grand Theft Auto clones from Grand Theft Auto III ,  and battle royale game from the film Battle Royale.
Some cross-genre types also exist that fall until multiple top-level genres such as action-adventure game. A video game's mode describes how many players can use the game at the same type.
This is primarily distinguished by single-player video games and multiplayer video games. Within the latter category, multiplayer games can be played in a variety of ways, including locally at the same device, on separate devices connected through a local network such as LAN parties , or online via separate Internet connections.
Most multiplayer games are based on competitive gameplay, but many offer cooperative and team-based options as well as asymmetric gameplay. Online games use server structures that can also enable massively multiplayer online games MMOs to support hundreds of players at the same time.
Most video games are created for entertainment purposes, but there are a small subset of games developed for additional purposes beyond entertainment.
These include:. Video games can be subject to national and international content rating requirements. Like with film content ratings, video game ratings typing identify the target age group that the national or regional ratings board believes is appropriate for the player, ranging from all-ages, to a teenager-or-older, to mature, to the infrequently seen adults-only titles.
Most content review is based on the level of violence, both in the type of violence and how graphic it may be represented, and sexual content, but other themes such as drug and alcohol use and gambling that can influence children may also be identified.
A primary identifier based on a minimum age is used by nearly all systems, along with additional descriptors to identify specific content that players and parents should be aware of.
The regulations vary from country to country but generally are voluntary systems upheld by vendor practices, with penalty and fines issued by the ratings body on the video game publisher for misuse of the ratings.
Among the major content rating systems include:. Additionally, the major content system provides have worked to create the International Age Rating Coalition IARC , a means to streamline and align the content ratings system between different region, so that a publisher would only need to complete the content ratings review for one provider, and use the IARC transition to affirm the content rating for all other regions.
Certain nations have even more restrictive rules related to political or ideological content. Notably, China's video game segment is mostly isolated from the rest of the world due to the government's censorship, and all games published there must adhere to strict government review, disallowing content such as smearing the image of the Chinese Communist Party.
Foreign games published in China often require modification by developers and publishers to meet these requirements. Video game development and authorship, much like any other form of entertainment, is frequently a cross-disciplinary field.
Video game developers , as employees within this industry are commonly referred, primarily include programmers and graphic designers.
Over the years this has expanded to include almost every type of skill that one might see prevalent in the creation of any movie or television program, including sound designers , musicians, and other technicians; as well as skills that are specific to video games, such as the game designer.
All of these are managed by producers. In the early days of the industry, it was more common for a single person to manage all of the roles needed to create a video game.
As platforms have become more complex and powerful in the type of material they can present, larger teams have been needed to generate all of the art, programming, cinematography, and more.
This is not to say that the age of the "one-man shop" is gone, as this is still sometimes found in the casual gaming and handheld markets,  where smaller games are prevalent due to technical limitations such as limited RAM or lack of dedicated 3D graphics rendering capabilities on the target platform e.
Video games are programmed like any other piece of computer software. Early games required programming all parts of a game. Today, game developers have a number of commercial and open source tools available for use to make games, often which are across multiple platforms to support portability, or may still opt to create their own for more specialized features and direct control of the game.
Today, many games are built around a game engine that handles the bulk of the game's logic, gameplay, and rendering.
These engines can be augmented with specialized engines for specific features, such as a physics engine that simulates the physics of objects in real-time.
A variety of middleware exists to help developers to access other features, such as for playback of videos within games, network-oriented code for games that communicate via online services, matchmaking for online games, and similar features.
These features can be used from a devlopers' programming language of choice, or they may opt to also use game development kits that minimize the amount of direct programming they have to do but can also limit the amount of customization they can add into a game.
Like all software, video games usually undergo quality testing before release to assure there are no bugs or glitches in the product, though frequently developers will release patches and updates.
With the growth of the size of development teams in the industry, the problem of cost has increased. Development studios need to be able to pay their staff a competitive wage in order to attract and retain the best talent, while publishers are constantly looking to keep costs down in order to maintain profitability on their investment.
Typically, a video game console development team can range in sizes of anywhere from 5 to 50 people, with some teams exceeding In May , one game project was reported to have a development staff of While amateur and hobbyist game programming had existing since the late s with the introduction of home computers, a newer trend since the mids is indie game development.
Indie games are made by small teams outside any direct publisher control, their games being smaller in scope than those from the larger " AAA " game studios, and are often experiment in gameplay and art style.
Indie game development are aided by larger availability of digital distribution, including the newer mobile gaming marker, and readily-available and low-cost development tools for these platforms.
Video games have a large network effect that draw on many different sectors that tie into the larger video game industry. While video game developers are a significant portion of the industry, other key participants in the market include: .
The research firm anticipated that Asia would soon overtake North America as the largest video game market due to the strong growth of free-to-play and mobile games.
Sales of different types of games vary widely between countries due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase much more handheld games than console games and especially PC games , with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes.
Computer games are also popular in China. Creators will nearly always copyright their games. Laws that define copyright, and the rights that are conveyed over a video game vary from country to country.
Usually a fair use copyright clause allows consumers some ancillary rights, such as for a player of the game to stream a game online. This is a vague area in copyright law, as these laws predate the advent of video games.
This means that rightsholders often must define what they will allow a consumer to do with the video game.
Although departments of computer science have been studying the technical aspects of video games for years, theories that examine games as an artistic medium are a relatively recent development in the humanities.
The two most visible schools in this emerging field are ludology and narratology. Narrativists approach video games in the context of what Janet Murray calls "Cyberdrama".
That is to say, their major concern is with video games as a storytelling medium, one that arises out of interactive fiction.
Murray puts video games in the context of the Holodeck , a fictional piece of technology from Star Trek , arguing for the video game as a medium in which the player is allowed to become another person, and to act out in another world.
Ludologists break sharply and radically from this idea. They argue that a video game is first and foremost a game, which must be understood in terms of its rules, interface, and the concept of play that it deploys.
Espen J. Aarseth argues that, although games certainly have plots, characters, and aspects of traditional narratives, these aspects are incidental to gameplay.
For example, Aarseth is critical of the widespread attention that narrativists have given to the heroine of the game Tomb Raider , saying that "the dimensions of Lara Croft 's body, already analyzed to death by film theorists , are irrelevant to me as a player, because a different-looking body would not make me play differently When I play, I don't even see her body, but see through it and past it.
While many games rely on emergent principles , video games commonly present simulated story worlds where emergent behavior occurs within the context of the game.
The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player.
In general, any place where event-driven instructions occur for AI in a game, emergent behavior will exist. The programmer never wrote code to specifically create a traffic jam, yet one now exists in the game.
Video game culture is a worldwide new media subculture formed around video games and game playing.
As computer and video games have increased in popularity over time, they have had a significant influence on popular culture. Video game culture has also evolved over time hand in hand with internet culture as well as the increasing popularity of mobile games.
Many people who play video games identify as gamers, which can mean anything from someone who enjoys games to someone who is passionate about it.
As video games become more social with multiplayer and online capability , gamers find themselves in growing social networks.
Gaming can both be entertainment as well as competition, as a new trend known as electronic sports is becoming more widely accepted.
In the s, video games and discussions of video game trends and topics can be seen in social media , politics, television, film and music.
Since the mids there has been debate whether video games qualify as art, primarily as the form's interactivity interfered with the artistic intent of the work and that they are designed for commercial appeal.
A significant debate on the matter came after film critic Roger Ebert published an essay "Video Games can never be art",  which challenged the industry to prove him and other critics wrong.
Supreme Court ruled in the landmark case Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association that video games were a protected form of speech with artistic merit.
Besides their entertainment value, appropriately-designed video games have been seen to provide value in education across several ages and comprehension levels.
Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U. Video games are also believed to be beneficial to the mind and body.
It has been shown that action video game players have better hand—eye coordination and visuo-motor skills , such as their resistance to distraction , their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects, than nonplayers.
Video games have not been without controversy since the s. Parents and children's advocates have raised concerns that violent video games can influence young players into performing those violent acts in real life, and events such as the Columbine High School massacre in in which the perpetrators specifically alluded to using video games to plot out their attack, raised further fears.
Medical experts and mental health professionals have also raised concerned that video games may be addictive , and the World Health Organization has included "gaming disorder" in the 11th revision of its International Statistical Classification of Diseases.
Other health experts, including the American Psychiatric Association , have stated that there is insufficient evidence that video games can can create violent tendiencies or lead to addictive behavior,  though agree that video games typically use a compulsion loop in their core design that can create dopamine that can help reinforce the desire to continue to play through that compulsion loop and potentially lead into violent or addictive behavior.
Numerous other controversies around video games and its industry have arisen over the years, among the more notable incidents include the United States Congressional hearings on games like Mortal Kombat which lead to the formation of the ESRB ratings system, numerous legal actions taken by attorney Jack Thompson over violent games such as Grand Theft Auto III and Manhunt from to , the outrage over the " No Russian " level from Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 in , and the Gamergate movement in Players of video games often maintain collections of games.
More recently there has been interest in retrogaming , focusing on games from the first decades. Separately, there is also concern about the preservation of video games, as both game media and the hardware to play them degrade over time.
Further, many of the game developers and publishers from the first decades no longer exist, so records of their games have disappeared.
Archivists and preservations have worked within the scope of copyright law to save these games as part of the cultural history of the industry.
There are many video game museums around the world, including the National Videogame Museum in Frisco, Texas ,  which serves as the largest museum wholly dedicated to the display and preservation of the industry's most important artifacts.
The Museum of Modern Art has added a total of 20 video games and one video game console to its permanent Architecture and Design Collection since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Electronic game that involves a user interface and visual feedback. For the song by Lana Del Rey , see Video Games song.
Arcade game Console game Game console Home console Electronic game Audio game Electronic handheld Handheld console Mobile game Online game Social-network game PC game Linux Mac.
Action Beat 'em up Hack and slash Fighting Platform Shooter Survival Battle royale Action-adventure Stealth Survival horror Adventure Interactive fiction Interactive movie Visual novel Role-playing Action role-playing Tactical role-playing Simulation Construction and management Life simulation Sports Vehicle Strategy 4X Auto battler Multiplayer online battle arena Real-time strategy Real-time tactics Tower defense Turn-based strategy Turn-based tactics Horror Massively multiplayer online.
Arcade games Best-selling games franchises fastest-selling Highest-grossing games franchises arcade mobile Most-played games mobile Games considered among the best Game of the Year awards Negative reception.
Game AI Game design Video game design Interaction Programming Art Graphics Music. Main articles: History of video games and Early history of video games.
Baer left receiving the National Medal of Technology from U. President George W. Bush in Nolan Bushnell in See also: Glossary of video game terms.
Main article: Game controller. Main article: Video game graphics. Main article: Video game genre. See also: Gameplay. Play media. Main article: Video game content rating system.
Main article: Video game development. See also: Video game industry practices. Main article: Video game industry.
See also: List of best-selling video games and Golden age of arcade video games. Main article: Copyright and video games.
Main article: Game studies. Main articles: Video game culture and Gamer. Main article: Video games as an art form. Main articles: Video games in education and Video game behavioral effects.
Main article: Video game controversies. Main articles: Video game collecting and Video game preservation. See also: List of video game museums.
Video games portal. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original on 23 July Douglas' Noughts and Crosses game".
Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 3 July Introduction to Game Development. Massachusetts: Charles River Media.
Wired News. Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 28 December